United Kingdom Energy Information
United Kingdom Key Figures
GDP growth rate: 7.44 %/year
Energy independence: 63.0%
Data of the last year available: 2021
CO2 Emissions: 4.87 tCO2/capita
Rate of T&D power losses: 8.24%
* at purchasing power parity
View all macro and energy indicators in the United Kingdom energy report
United Kingdom Related News
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United Kingdom Related Research
Total Energy Consumption
Consumption per capita has shrunk by almost a third since 2000, bringing it to 2.3 toe in 2021. Electricity consumption per capita dropped by more than 20%, from 5 800 kWh in 2000 to 4 300 kWh in 2020.
In 2021, energy consumption rebounded by 4% (3.3% at normal climate) to 160 Mtoe, after an 5% drop in 2020 (11% at real climate). Previously, between 2003 and 2019, energy consumption decreased by almost 2%/year.
Graph: CONSUMPTION TRENDS BY ENERGY SOURCE (Mtoe)
Interactive Chart United Kingdom Total Energy Consumption
Crude Oil Production
Since 2019, crude oil production has declined by 12%/year, reaching 41 Mt in 2021. Previously, it rebounded by 5.5%/year between 2014 and 2019 from 40 Mt to 53 Mt. Over 1999-2014, oil production decreased by 8%/year from a peak of 137 Mt to 40 Mt.
The UK became a net crude oil importer in 2005 and imported a net amount of 8 Mt in 2021.
Interactive Chart United Kingdom Crude Oil Production
Oil Products Consumption
Oil consumption rebounded by 6% in 2021 after a 15% decrease in 2020. Previously, oil consumption declined by 2%/year between 2017 and 2019 after a 2%/year increase between 2013 and 2017, led by the transport and petrochemical sectors. Over 2005-2013, oil consumption decreased by around 3%/year.
Graph: OIL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
In 2021, transport accounted for 66% of oil consumption (69% in 2000) and industry for 15% (including non-energy uses, 28% in 2000).
Interactive Chart United Kingdom Refined Oil Products Production
Natural Gas Consumption
Since 2016, natural gas consumption is relatively stable at around 80 bcm, except in 2020 when it fell to 74 bcm. Previously, gas consumption increased by 14% between 2014 and 2016, after a 30% decline over 2004-2014.
Graph: NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (bcm)
Interactive Chart United Kingdom Natural Gas Domestic Consumption
Coal consumption increased by 4% in 2021 to 8.5 Mt following a slight rebound in coal-fired generation. Previously, it decreased by 21%/year between 2012 and 2020 because of the closure of numerous coal-fired power plants.
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION (Mt)
The power sector accounted for 39% of coal consumption in 2020, down from 88% in 2012.
Graph: COAL CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Interactive Chart United Kingdom Coal and Lignite Domestic Consumption
Electricity consumption rebounded by 1.2% in 2021 to 291 TWh, after a 5.2% drop in 2020. Between 2005 and 2019, electricity consumption declined on average by 1.2%/year.
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
Households are the main electricity consumers (38%) followed by industry (29%) and services (28%).
Graph: ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BREAKDOWN BY SECTOR (2021, %)
Renewable in % Electricity Production
In 2020, the National Infrastructure Commission (NIC) updated its target for deployment of renewables as part of a carbon-free electricity system, from 50% to 65% of the power mix by 2030 (42% in 2021). In October 2021, the country vowed to reach 100% of its power from emission-free sources by 2035. The new target, which has not yet been included in a government plan, could be achieved by developing wind power and other renewable sources.
Interactive Chart United Kingdom Share of Renewables in Electricity Production (incl hydro)
CO2 Fuel Combustion/CO2 Emissions
GHG emissions have been decreasing rapidly since 1990. After a sharp 9.5% reduction in 2020, GHG emissions increased by 4.7% in 2021 to 424.5 MtCO2eq, according to preliminary figures.
In its updated NDC (2020), the country aims to reduce its GHG emissions by 68% by 2030 from 1990 level, compared to 53% in the previous NDC. In 2021, the country set into law a new reduction target of 78% in 2035; in 2021 the country was at 60% of this target (47% reduction achieved).
In 2019, the United Kingdom adopted a law requiring net-zero GHG emissions by 2050.
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